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Vitamins and their importance to the health of the dog.

Vitamins and their importance to the health of the dog.
Those contained in the diet of dog vitamins directly related to her health. Lack of vitamins, often leads to negative consequences that may be irreversible.
Vitamins – organic substances needed in small amounts in the diet of dogs. Synthesis of vitamins are usually carried out by plants, not animals. The daily requirement of vitamins is a few milligrams. In contrast to inorganic vitamins are destroyed by strong heating. Many vitamins are unstable and “lost” during cooking or processing food.
Vitamins and their importance for normal functioning of a living organism, were discovered in the early 20th century during the experiments. These experiments demonstrated that, if excluded from the diet of the animals a number of products they develop diseases caused by nutritional deficiency, while the consumption of even small amounts of certain foods or their extracts, helps to prevent or cure these diseases. It was found that the beneficial effects of these additives depends on the presence of unknown substances – vitamins.
Artificially produced vitamins are no different from those found in food. They are used as drugs to prevent diseases and nutritional deficiencies as an additive to improve the nutritional value of food and feed farm animals.
Vitamins are divided into two classes: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in gasoline, ether, and fats. In contrast, water-soluble vitamins do not dissolve in fats and soluble in water and alcohol. Vitamins A, D, E and K – fat soluble, and all the rest – the water-soluble.

Vitamin A
Vitamin A is fat soluble is an alcohol, which is formed of red vegetable pigment beta-carotene. In the body of animals and humans is the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A. And vitamin A, and beta-carotene – unsaturated compounds, they are easily oxidized in air and destroyed. Previously, the main source of vitamin A was concentrated fish oil, mainly from shark liver. Currently, this vitamin is synthesized by chemical means.
The physiological role of vitamin A is to maintain the normal state above all epithelial tissues (including mucous membranes), as well as nerve and bone tissue. Of vitamin A depends on the ability to see in low light.
Insufficient amounts of vitamin A leads to the fact that the puppies stop the growth process, reduced immunity to disease. Adult dogs with dramatically reduced the rate of perception of different visual images, there is a sexual dysfunction. Large quantities of vitamin A found in carrots, tomatoes, greens, liver, milk, cod liver oil and egg yolk. Provitamin A is found in fruits and vegetables in red or orange.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is structurally related to the steroid compounds – a class of fat-soluble substances in the composition of animal tissues, fungi and various plants. Vitamin D – this family of compounds, each of which consists of certain sterols, his predecessor. In animals, vitamin D is mainly represented in the form of vitamin D3. Vitamin A activity is determined by the ability to cause the deposition of minerals (mainly calcium phosphate).
Vitamin D3 enhances calcium absorption in the intestine. More precisely, this function is performed by its derivatives produced in the body. Because vitamin D regulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, it plays a key role in the normal formation of bones and teeth. If the growing organism, in which only the bones, not enough vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus in the blood falls below normal levels, and bones soften and deform. However, high doses of vitamin D can have toxic effects.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E has another name – tocopherol, which in Greek means “the birth of the baby,” and points to the role of this vitamin in reproduction. There are four forms of tocopherol – alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Vitamin E is stored mainly in adipose tissue. The main natural sources of vitamin E are green leaves of plants, as well as cotton, peanut, soybean and wheat oils. A good source of this vitamin is also a margarine made from vegetable oil. Another function of vitamin E is to support muscle tone in young animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and prevents oxidation and destruction of vitamin A.

Vitamin K
Vitamin K exists in nature in two forms: K1 and K2. Both forms are soluble. Vitamin K is also known as vitamin antigemorragicheskim: it is believed that it induces the formation of prothrombin in the liver – protein involved in blood coagulation. When vitamin K clotting time is significantly increased compared to the norm. Apparently, an important role in the dissolution of natural vitamin K in the gut plays a bile: in the absence of vitamin is not absorbed. In this regard, vitamin K deficiency can result from violations of the outflow of bile. A healthy body usually satisfies their need for vitamin K with a balanced diet.

Subgroup B Vitamins
It was found that a number of natural products (yeast, liver and milk) contains a water-soluble fraction, necessary for normal life. It was called the water-soluble fraction of B. Soon it was shown that it contains a number of chemical compounds, including thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.

Thiamine (vitamin B1) – a complex chemical structure of the compound containing sulfur, which gives it its characteristic odor. Thiamine is destroyed by heating in the presence of moisture in the dry state is stable. In the process of cooking and canning products of thiamine content in them decreases, but this is due largely to the heating, and the fact that it is easily washed off. In nature, thiamin is widely distributed, but most of its food content is low. Many of thiamine found in yeast, peanuts, peas and other legumes, lean pork, bran cereal plants and seedlings.
Thiamine plays an important role in the enzyme system that ensures the use of carbohydrates cells. With a lack of thiamine carbohydrates in tissues of the body “burn” is not entirely, with the accumulated toxic waste.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) – orange pigment, which gives a yellowish tint raw egg white and whey. It is much more resistant to heat than thiamine, but is destroyed by light. It must come from food regularly, and quite a lot of riboflavin in the liver, yeast, eggs, green leaves of plants and milk. In industrial scale, this vitamin is produced by microbial synthesis or by chemical means.

Like thiamin, riboflavin plays an important role in some enzyme systems that provide the use of cell nutrients. When riboflavin deficiency skin around the nostrils and mouth covered with cracks and izyazvlyaetsya. In addition, the affected eye: there is intolerance to bright light (photophobia).

Niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin PP) and niacinamide (nicotinamide) – two interchangeable vitamin substances. In medical practice it is often better niacin niacinamide, which causes temporary reddening of the skin. When cooking and food processing niacin, as a rule, not destroyed. In a significant number contained in yeast, liver, fish and lean meat. Niacin and niacinamide are in large quantities for use as food additives and pharmaceuticals.

Folic acid
Folic or pteroilglutaminovaya, acid – a yellow pigment, poorly soluble in water. According to the chemical structure of a compound of glutamic acid and para-aminobenzoic with yellow pigment pterins. Its name must pterins wings of butterflies, which he provides color: a Greek word meaning pteron wing. Folic acid is found in liver, yeast, herbs, eggs and soy, in addition, it is produced by chemical means.
Folic acid plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids and in the processes of cell growth and division, especially in the formation of blood cells. In this connection, when folic acid deficiency of red blood cells and white blood cell count is significantly lower than normal, and red blood cells increase in size.

Vitamin B6
As well as niacin, vitamin B6 is a derivative of pyridine. In nature, there are three of its biologically active forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Rich in vitamin B6 yeast, liver, lean meats and whole grain cereals.
The biological function of this vitamin is associated with the exchange of amino acids and utilization of proteins in tissues. In animals, vitamin B6 deficiency causes anemia, and paralysis.

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic Acid – Nitrogen-containing acid. Its main sources – the liver, yeast, egg yolk, broccoli, it also obtained by chemical means. Pantothenic acid is part of a molecule of coenzyme A, involved in many biochemical processes, including those in the biological synthesis of fats and steroids, on the one hand, and the reactions of fat breakdown – on the other.

Biotin – a complex organic compound composed of sulfur atoms and nitrogen. Found in liver, egg yolk, yeast and other foods. Raw egg white has a unique feature: it links located in the digestive tract of biotin and makes it unavailable to the body.

Choline is usually related to vitamin B group, although it is synthesized in the body, and its content in tissues is much higher than other B vitamins (in raw liver, for example, about 0.5% by weight of the body). In large quantities found in foods such as egg yolk, liver, lean meat, fish, soy and peanuts. Choline is easily obtained by chemical means. In the body, he is involved in the transport of fat and building new cells. Along with phosphoric acid and fatty acids, it is part of lecithin. The fats in the bloodstream form of lecithin transported from the liver to other tissues. If insufficient intake of choline dietary fat accumulates in the liver, which may be a factor leading to liver cirrhosis.

Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia. This vitamin – the only one of the biologically active compounds, which includes cobalt, hence its other name – cobalamin. It was isolated in two forms – B12a and B12b, possessing the same activity. In plant foods and vitamin B12 is not present, unlike other B vitamins, it does not synthesize the plant, and some bacteria and soil fungi. In very small quantities (about one part per million) of this vitamin found in liver, lean meat, fish, milk and eggs. His failure in young animals leads to stunted growth and high mortality. Like folic acid, vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C – ascorbic acid, or vitamin antiscorbutic – its structure is similar to glucose, from which it and get into the industry. A lot of vitamin C in fresh fruits and vegetables.

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